Eye Problems in Dogs

Josephine suffered from eye problems in dogs

eye problems in dogs

The possibility of eye problems in dogs is naturally a concern, so let’s have a look at what we can do in terms of prevention, help or treatment. 

Let me begin by saying eye problems in dogs is not inevitable, which is very good news. Vision loss and eye problems can occur, so if eye exams are not part of your dog’s health checks, they should be. It’s always easier to treat a problem when caught early. 

Be watchful!

Dogs are pretty good at hiding pain, but if you’re in tune to changes in your dog and his behaviour (as we all should be), you’ll notice when something isn’t “quite right.” I recommend a Josephine suffered from eye problems in dogsvisit to your vet as soon as possible, especially if you share your life with a senior dog. Things can happen quickly, so it’s best not to adopt a “wait and see” attitude. 

Signs your dog may have eye problems 

  • Walks on objects or surfaces he would normally avoid
  • Rubs his face on the ground
  • Eyes are bulging
  • Cloudy eyes
  • Stepping high – like he’s unsure when walking
  • Closed eyes
  • Discharge
  • Bumps into walls, furniture
  • Can’t catch toys you throw at him
  • Tearing
  • Redness
  • Rubbing his eye

Here’s an easy experiment to do at home  

Move a couple of pieces of furniture, turn off the lights, and watch how your dog gets around. Does he know where he’s going, or is he bumping into things? Now turn the lights back on and watch again. If he’s completely blind, you see the same results. If he has some vision, he’ll perform better in the light.

Now take him to the vet, or straight to the eye doctor.

Conditions that may affect your senior dog’s eyes

Nuclear Sclerosis or Lenticular Sclerosis

Have you ever looked into a dog’s eyes and noticed they appeared cloudy, a bluish haze? Although many people assume that’s cataracts, most of the time, it isn’t.  

What is it?

  • Result of age related changes to the lens
  • Often seen in dogs over 7 years old
  • Usually develops in both eyes at the same time
  • Isn’t painful

How does it happen?

The lens, which cannot expand, is made up of clear fibre cells that constantly grow. In young dogs the lens is clear, because there is plenty of room for new cells. As a dog ages, the new cells push the old ones towards the centre of the lens, hardening it and causing it to cloud over.


No treatment

Living with it

Doesn’t affect vision in any significant way, although your dog may find it a little difficult to see things close to them. All in all, your dog should get along fine.


Like Nuclear Sclerosis, cataracts cause cloudiness, but unlike it, cataracts affect vision. Thankfully, it is not a painful condition.

How does it happen?

Changes start in the centre of the lens, then move outwards. Vision suffers as  the lens becomes more and more opaque. Cataracts due to age tend to develop in both eyes, but may progress at

Dog With Cataracts
Dog With Cataracts (Chester Portrait)

different rates.

Cataracts can develop as the result of trauma, infection, diabetes, or hypothyroidism – low thyroid function. Inherited conditions are the most common cause.

When does it usually happen?

Cataracts generally first show up at 6-8 years of age, but can be found in very young dogs as well.

Diagnosing cataracts

A check up is needed for confirmation. 


The only real treatment is surgery, but not if cataracts are the result of a secondary disease like diabetes.

By the time many pet parents notice, a large portion of the eye will have been affected.


To avoid cataracts caused by diabetes, keep your dog at an ideal weight. Overweight dogs are at risk of developing this disease. Having said that, diabetes can strike dogs of any size.   


Simply put, Glaucoma is pressure caused by a buildup of fluid in the eye. Left   untreated, the optic nerve and retina are damaged beyond repair, leading to partial or total loss of vision.

Glaucoma is quite a painful condition, and the most common cause of blindness in dogs. If this condition goes untreated for even 48 hours, it may be too late to save the sight in that eye, and when one eye has it, the other usually gets it. A common symptom is the sudden development of a red, painful eye.

There are two types of Glaucoma – Primary and Secondary

Primary Glaucoma

The fluid is not able to drain through the filtration angles of the eye, and is genetics based.

I read this very sobering statistic, once again emphasising the need to act quickly. Over 50% of dogs with primary glaucoma will develop complications in their unaffected eye within about 8 months.

Symptoms include:

  • Blinking
  • Cloudiness in the eye
  • Eye is shrinking into the head
  • Redness of the blood vessels in the whites of the eyes
  • Bulging eyes
  • Obvious sight loss

Secondary Glaucoma

This occurs after some other eye problem – trauma, slipping of the lens, inflammation, injury that caused blood to collect in the front of the eye…

Symptoms include:

  • High pressure in the eye
  • Redness of the blood vessels in the whites of eyes
  • Cloudy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Not interested in playing
  • Constriction of the pupil

Diagnosing Glaucoma

Go to the eye doctor!

It’s entirely possible your vet has all the equipment needed to diagnose glaucoma, and medications to treat it, and he may be fully qualified to perform as an eye doctor, I can’t speak to that. However in my case when we adopted Red who was blind, we went straight to a specialist. Our vet was wonderful, but going to him first would have wasted time, and in some cases that extra time could impact the outcome.


Depending on the condition of the eyes, and the test results, your vet/eye doctor will discuss with you the options available. It could involve drugs, draining fluid, surgery, possible removal of your dog’s eyes.

Prosthetic eyes could replace the damaged ones, or the eyelids sutured shut. I know it sounds gruesome, but I have been assured by the eye doctor we went to, dogs can live with it.

Eye irritants and other issues

Dust, sand, and other foreign bodies affect dogs of any age. If you notice your dog blinking a lot, tearing, rubbing his eyes, unable to open his eye(s), call your vet (or eye doctor) right away. Ask what you can do immediately at home, then get him down there as soon as possible. It doesn’t take long for a minor issue to affect vision.  


If your dog goes blind gradually, you might not even realise it for quite some time. They know their homes and territory so well, they don’t seem to struggle. Other senses become more acute, and they adapt rather well.

Of course if a dog goes blind suddenly, it can be very scary for the dog, and sad for everyone. It will take you and the dog time to adjust but you will.

My experience

In my dog Red’s case, her eyes were literally bulging out of her head when we adopted her. It was the pressure building up due to glaucoma, because her condition was obviously ignored for so long. Her blindness was permanent, and immediate action was required. Her condition was so severe, her eyes would have blown out of their sockets had we waited much longer.

Whoever she lived with previously, obviously neglected her terribly.

The pressure was relieved by inserted a needle into each eye – I don’t recall the name of the procedure – and her eyes began to get smaller almost immediately. Poor baby I can’t imagine how much pain she must have been in.   

How to keep your visually impaired/blind dog safe

  • Keep him leashed in unfamiliar surroundings to prevent injury
  • If you have stairs, put a gate at the top and bottom, and keep telling everyone who lives with you to keep them closed
  • Never let him off a leash outside unless he’s in a fenced in area
  • Be mindful of things left on the floor that he can trip over – shoes, bags, toys…

To finish….

It’s my hope you enjoyed this article – maybe enjoyed isn’t the right word – let’s say found it helpful. Please, any doubts or concerns about anything, especially eye problems in dogs, see your vet, or an eye doctor immediately.



Do you share your life with a blind dog? Was she born blind, blind when you rescued her or something that developed as a result of illness or injury? How have you managed, and what have you found works well in your home? Sharing your stories helps others.


Eye Problems in Dogs
Hindy Pearson
Helping people care for their senior dogs
I am a certified dog trainer and pet care consultant, specialising in working with rescue dogs and first time pet parents. I foster and adopt senior and special needs dogs, and advocate for shelter adoption of all animals, particularly older dogs and cats. I am currently working on a spay/neuter program in Spain.

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17 thoughts on “Eye Problems in Dogs

  1. Hi Hindy,
    Wow, there is a lot to learn when taking care of an older dog. It is great that you have provided us with such in-depth information so we can monitor our pets if we need to. This post is very helpful, and the vision test with using light to check your dog’s eyesight is very easy and will help so much. Thank you.

    1. Hi Heather, Thanks for taking the time to comment – it’s much appreciated. My goal with this site is to provide people who care for senior dogs with as much help, advice and tips as I can. What matters most to me is that older dogs are as comfortable as they can possibly be, in the final years of their life. I’m so glad you fount it helpful.

  2. Hi Heather, This is a subject close to my heart as I’ve recently lost both of my lovely dogs, a brother and sister. Both of them lost a lot of their sight and both of them went quite deaf, to such a degree that they couldn’t hear commands anymore. This blog is very comprehensive and covers everything to do with the care of an elderly dog, especially their failing eyesight. My dogs lived to 17 years, not a bad age. Thanks for the site it’s very informative. Ches

      1. Hi Ches, No problem, thanks for correcting that! I’m very sorry to hear about your dogs. 17, wow! You’re fortunate to have had them for so many years. I know how devastating it is to lose your pets, haven’t been down that road too many times myself. It’s one thing to lose one sense, but to lose almost two is tough. I had a deaf and blind dog and it just doesn’t seem fair does it? I’m glad you enjoyed the blog, and found it thorough. I’m just getting started with it really, and my goal is to make it a comprehensive site for anyone sharing their life with a senior dog.

  3. I agree that you have plenty of very useful information on here. I’m not a dog owner, but I know how much effort it can take to raise a pet. It’s nice to have people like you to provide help to those struggling to alleviate their dog’s vision problems.

    1. Hi John, Thanks for commenting, and so glad you found the information helpful. I’m doing my best to provide as much useful information as I can to help people care for their senior dogs.

  4. Thanks for the useful and helpful information concerning eye health of our senior dogs. I have had many dogs but have never experience eye problems. Dogs tend to get the same diseases that we do so you are so right when saying we need to keep a close eye on our dogs for any signs of a health issue.
    I have a tendency to run my hands over our dog almost daily searching for anything out of the ordinary.
    On another dog of ours we found the tiniest lump on his neck and took him to the vet only to find out he had cancer. Since we caught it early he underwent treatment and survived and lived many years after.
    Our dogs are part of our family and should be treated as such.
    Thanks for the great info.

    1. Hi Maureen, I appreciate you taking the time to comment, and I’m so glad you found the posts informative. That’s a great “ritual” you have going – takes seconds but, in your case, those seconds literally saved your dog’s life. Thanks for sharing that, and hopefully others reading this will incorporate that into their dog’s daily routine.

  5. Thank you for such an informative post! I’ll be sure to remember to watch out for these things as my dog gets older.

    On another note, what breed was Josephine? She looks exactly like my dog, who is a mutt, and so I’ve never seen a dog who looks so much like her before!

    1. You’re very welcome. I love writing about senior dogs and how to care for them. It’s nice to know my experience is helping others. I don’t know exactly what Josephine was. We adopted her as quite an old lady, and of course the shelter staff didn’t know. They just referred to her as a Shih Tzu – but who knows what else was in there. Interestingly enough, I got a DNA kit to test her, but never did.

      1. The rescue agency I adopted my dog from said Shih Tzu too! I’ve also been told she could be part Maltese. The mystery for me lies in the fact that her fur never gets as long as either of those breeds.

        Maybe I’ll try one of those DNA kits!

        1. Hi Samantha, First of all, so nice to hear you adopted your dog. There are so many dogs I’ve seen that are called Shih Tzus, but they all look different! Josephine’s fur never grew much either. I think there was a reason I was considering a DNA test, but I don’t recall now, or it might have been sheer curiosity. To be honest, I don’t much care what breed I get, as long as the dog needs a home, but I must admit, sometimes I’d just like to know. Red (the dog in most of my posts) is a Chihuahua/Min Pin (I say that because she looks exactly like a Min Pin, with the shortness of a Chihuahua). However, I’m convinced there’s Rhodesian Ridgeback in her, although my husband laughs. She has that stripe going down her back. In her case, I’m tempted.

  6. Both my Shih Tzu’s have gone blind, the male has also suffered severe hearing loss. They are siblings that i got from rescue group in Oklahoma. The female went blind over a period of time and has adjusted very well. The male seems to have went blind over night and is having trouble adjusting. It is probably made worse due to the hearing loss.

    1. Hi Virgil, first let me say how sorry I am to hear that, but how wonderful you chose to rescue. I understand what you’re saying about the boy having a hard time when it’s so sudden, and he’s having trouble hearing. We rescued a Shih Tzu that was deaf and could see shadows. In a split second, it seemed, what little sight she had disappeared and she literally cried for a week. It was heartbreaking to witness, but she did get through it eventually. What did the vet say? Is there anything you can do for him?

      1. There is nothing that can be done. I carried my female, Fiona, to a pet Optomoligest in Tulsa, he said that Fiona had genetic retinitis and that there was nothing that could be done. My male, Rocko, probably has the same condition. Fiona has a small amount of far vision, Rocko is totally blind. They are 11 years old, so they should have a few more years. I will be here for them no matter what happens.

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